Created; < 2011, Changed 12/04/2024, 11/12/2023 


1950's Germanium bipolar junction power transistors alongside modern surface mount, Silicon MOSFET power transistors.

OC28, OC35 (5-8A or 25-35V) and IPT60P028G7 Infineon (600V and 75A). 

Secondary breakdown that occurs in Bipolar-Junction-transistors in OC28 and OC35 can only handle the maximum current when the voltage is less than 5V.   

A MOSFET does not suffer from secondary breakdown and so can handle both maximum current and voltage together very briefly.

The green push-button and the calliper battery tester were part of a children's electrical experimental kit.  I was probably given when I was five, and I used it a lot for many years, there was also a bell, a buzzer, light bulb and holder plus coiled wire. British made tools, as would be usual in about 1963.

I learnt a lot from a few of these kits with many experiments.  Another kit I could make a motor, wind a solenoid, and make a buzzer, a shocker coil among other things.  Another a Philips Radionics kit, I could make many transistor circuits, the spring-loaded clips and circuit cards worked very well. 

The flaw in writing about electronics is that young people learn hands-on, mostly, by looking at the pictures and guessing the operation.  An adult can help by guiding the young person but even then only with small manageable pieces of information.  That is, there are so many things to think about in electronics that also thinking about what someone was saying to me was too much.  I am certain this is true of everyone, particularly learning electronics, visualising the function, electrical interference and decoupling, circuit stability, and the how to create good circuit layout of a design by remaking an amplifier, for example. 


The electronics I discuss is mostly analogue electronics which is a key part of all physical electronics design.

I am an electronics design engineer but what I design or use are electronic.   Engineers interpret wishes into a practical solution and work together with scientists who propose ideal solutions.

Negative resistor;

This is a simple and alternative solution to using an integrated circuit (IC) for a resettable fuse.  (OrCAD AL-0014-02A)

I have been designing and making things since before I went to school.

British Engineering and the TV science fiction.

In light of surveillance, Windows vulnerabilities versus also ease of use, how does Linux do compared to Windows?

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