Robust Electronics design methods
You don't need minimal and elegant design in order to get good functionality necessarily but complexity may be the easiest place to start. That is by using lots of components to create many simple to understand circuit function blocks that in turn create simple to follow system, is fine. The block diagram would then simply coincide with each circuit function blocks and each circuit block would do one function. This is not always possible or desirable but the point is to design and plan as far as you can see. The design can be refined and functions combined or split up later when you can see further.
The circuit below is an electronic fuse and is a development of the circuit ideas at the bottom of this page.
The first diagram is a novel circuit that produces negative resistance - the current first increases but over a small voltage range then drops as the voltage increases further. I developed this in 1976/1977 when I was a teenager learning about JFET transistors.
The function block can be used to discharge remnant power in a circuit to ensure a clean power off/on reset. I have come across this circuit used as an over current input protector in recent years.
The second circuit is a variation of the first to make an over current circuit breaker with a delay to so that false triggering is avoided.
Add two zenner diodes and change the N-ch-JFET to a high voltage depletion mode MOSFET or JFET plus some other changes to make this circuit operate at a higher voltage than the FET's S-G junction voltage rating.
These circuits were drawn using OrCAD 16.6 Lite. (AL-0014-01a & AL-0014-03a)
I do not intend to give more examples like this of circuits and block diagrams other than to illustrate points on robust design, techniques for noise minimisation and good electromagnetic immunity. It is not always desirable or possible to spilt the circuit or any design into separate components for each function. The key to the very good feel and performance of the camera below, for its time, is that many of the functions are integrated together with many components only work very well because of there interconnected.
This Agfa Selette I camera, which is not electronic, but the construction looks simple but it is not, the lens is particularly good sharp and very tolerant of incident sun light.Their are baffles between each of the three glass elements within the lens to absorb scattered light. These mat black baffles make the camera cope well with most incident light on the lens. The slightly wide angle lens is sharp over the whole picture frame and the approximate focus method works very well. The iris and shutter are within the lens near the focus but components at this location are not focused so the shutter is less likely to distort the image. By comparison a Single Lens Reflex camera stretching or shrinking objects moving in the same plane as the at high shutter speeds. Also by comparison if flash is longer duration than the shutter synchronisation speed this does not result in a partial exposure of the film that would happen with an SLR.
Once you become a proper camera nerd (put-down way of saying expert) and can estimate light, distance and use a meter this is the most predictable camera I have. That is I look down at the camera see all the settings are correct (which I have been adjusting as I carry the camera around). Also having a light meter is useful at around dusk but can be a distraction and at other times estimation is usually the best all round compromise and using the guide on the film carton is fine.
The Silette 1 was purchased second hand in 1973 for £5.00 from a camera shop. The camera is capable of capturing sharp, unshaken sharp pictures. It took me a long time before I started to get good pictures then in about 1982 I went to Norway and took 5 roles of Fuji slide film and got 99% success then my interest in photography was captured. The silent operation and the user is not distracted by anything else than picture composition when looking through the view finder is a particularly good feature of this camera I particularly missed when I started using an SLR that is also true of the digital camera.
Trivial example of a circuit design cycle - plain and simple verses clever and elegant design - Switched current source
Comparison with the design of electronics;
The Silette I camera above is designed with a combination of single function blocks, such as the film winder and also multiple function blocks such as the lens that has settable distance, three glass elements to focus the image over the entire area of the film in a flat plane and baffles to minimise flair due to incident that causes fogging of the picture as well as aperture and the shutter mechanism. Other functions (parts) are styled as one multiple function block, a camera, but are separate functions put together.
Like the camera electronics tends not have single function blocks either, at the least there is usually a circuit board, screening and filtering to consider together.
Start by drawn something roughly with pencil and paper but can be in electronic form - whichever is the easiest but drawing on paper is also important way to ensure you are not distracted by technicalities or final outcome at this stage. The first circuit may be different because a few ideas should be explored first.
Constant current Source with a switch (AL-00025-01 CADSTAR 18)
In conclusion the current source and switch function are separated for clarity but the comparison in the case of the camera above is more complicated. The benefit that the Single Lens Reflex Camera may have over cameras like Silette I or a Twin Lens Reflex (below) is that the lens is a detachable component. Also the image viewed, when taking close up pictures, is as the imaged to be captured on film. But other disbenefits of the SLR design is that the lens requires mechanical or electrical coupling to the camera body in order to operate the aperture diaphragm, shutter release and to inform the camera's metering system of the aperture setting.
The Yashicamat below is a 2 1/4" square format, Twin Lens Reflex camera is not elegant and it is hard to use. It produces excellent professional results. A similar point to the one I was making about the current source with a switch. Like the Agfa above the TLR's shutter exposes the whole of film simultaneously at all shutter speeds, this is not the case with an SLR though.
Play and exploring ideas is important in developing high quality design whether the requirement is simple or elegant
The Yashicamat is equal to a professional Rolliflex. Not that you need a fruit basket and a 1962 vintage radio (Vintage? I went with dad back to Strange Electrical in Sevenoaks when he took it back many times to be fixed under guarantee in the end only the VHF band worked which is what my father wanted) as well but it is a lot more work and you need to use a sturdy tripod to do achieve that quality and a tape measure is useful for setting the focus because the camera only has a magnifying glass as a focusing aid.
I should also say once I got used to them the Nikon SLR was good but the Cannon AE-1 SLR is an exceptionally nicely designed camera take excellent pictures with all setting to hand. My modern digital IXUS is excellent easy to use cameras gives better results than the AE-1 but does not have that plain simplicity of feel (use) and look of the Agfa.
The reflex mechanism (SLR & TLR cameras) is a spring powered mechanism that is wound up when the film wound-on and providing a wider range of shutter speed settings from; Bulb, 1 to 1/500th second. The view find front is open (right below) so that you can view the composition by looking through rather than looking down at the screen (left). Both types of cameras but all types are suitable for portrait photography but the draw back is that to get the picture you need to get the attention or the subject see the moment and take the picture otherwise the subject will become distracted but no amount of pictures too late will capture what you want. Both pictures are taken with camera phones using available light are technically poor but I think the composition is good. The first tong-in-cheek exaggeration to illustrating the amount of things you have to do and need before you can take a picture with a good film portrait camera but I've not achieved anything worthwhile with the Yashicamat.
INDEX OF ELECTRONICS
- Beginners Guide
- Engineering Management and Fault finding
- Mechanical Design for good RF
- Electronics - Electronics
- Electronics - exception synchronous rectifier
- Electronics - Noise Cancellation
- Electronics - Designing with discrete semiconductors
- Control Loops
- Tools measurement and tolerances
- Software and Digital
- Electronics - examples of filtering methods
- Electronics - Minimum design for Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electrostatic Discharge
- Electronics - Simulation and Judgement
- Blog; Electronics A page on my blog to discuss this electronics project.
- http://www.instructables.com/id/Electronics-Robust-Design You can also post and read comments on this project
Very modular kit necessary to take photos include, Camera, Lens hood, Flash mount, Flash cable, Flash, Shutter release cable, Removed knurled nut to fit the shutter release cable, Tripod. Photos of the Yashicamat were taken using Ericsson and Nokia phones. Also useful are a light meter and a tape measure to set the distance close up and estimation for distant focus is good instead of using the magnifier above the screen.
Personal profile - summary of my approach to design;
I have been interested in electronics since my childhood deciding that I wanted to do electricity when I was five. I have always worked in Electronics, As a Technician then became an Electronics design engineering since 1975.
If you would like to consider employing me please see my linkedin profile. I do non-military Electronics Design from home popping in a few times a week; http://uk.linkedin.com/in/ahlohmann.
First page; Beginners Guide